The Constitution of Polar Star Educational Association Espousing excellence and worthwhile achievement while inspiring greatness in our homes and families.
Updated August 2019
Article I – VISION We the families of Polar Star do establish and ordain this constitution to support us as we obtain a liberal arts leadership education based on the principles in A Thomas Jefferson Education. We join together as a community to inspire our youth and adults through the practice and apprentice scholar phases. We work to instill a sense of allegiance to God, Self, and Country. Polar Star is dedicated to Christ-centered principles and respects each family’s core book. Each person has a unique mission to fulfill and Polar Star helps to develop the necessary vision, mission, skills and abilities. We believe the family is the center of learning and plays a pivotal role in the success of their youth. Polar Star exists to support parents and provide group learning environments to enhance the educational lives of their youth. The youth mission statement will be: I am discovering the best within me. The great leadership I discover in scripture, literature, and history will become as a Polar Star to me and to others. My attitude, actions, convictions, service and scholarship will make a tremendous difference in my life, my family, and my world. Article II – FAMILY MEMBERSHIP Membership in Polar Star is a family, not an individual, decision and commitment. Our community brings together families with like culture, common goals, shared values, and common educational philosophies. Membership is not restricted to any one religious affiliation. However, some classes include discussion of religion as history is taught through a worldview that includes Divine Providence, students learn to use their core book to find truths, and prayers are given in Jesus Christ’s name. Mentors are expected to maintain respectful discussions regarding religion and core books, but parents should determine if a mentor is right for their children. As Polar Star grows to a maximum of thirty families, we will encourage the formation of additional New Commonwealth Schools with their own Constitution and leadership. Section 1 – Membership Qualifications After having been interviewed and accepted by the Executive Board, families become members when a parent and all students each read and sign this constitution and pay the family fee. Membership is open to families with youth between the ages of 12 and 18. Youth need to be 12 by the first day of class in September and no older than turning 18 by the end of the current school year. Exceptions can be made to complete Quest1 and for very mature 11 year olds who will turn 12 before January 1st. Mentors of each class should be consulted and agree to any exceptions. Each family pays a nonrefundable, annual family registration fee. Returning families have first priority in Polar Star and the siblings of current students will be accepted first. To reserve space for the following school year, the registration fee must be paid in the spring by the date determined by the Executive Board. Section 2 – Expectations This association is not for every student or family. There are high expectations. Some students are not ready to meet these expectations. Polar Star, as an organization, does not have the resources to handle special circumstances. Therefore, it is the responsibility of Polar Star leadership to screen potential members carefully. It is also the responsibility of the parents to be honest about the needs of their student and sensitive to and considerate of the other students and families in the association. Membership in Polar Star comes with the following responsibilities: ● To provide a vision of our educational and organizational goals, each family should read A Thomas Jefferson Education by Oliver DeMille. They should also attend or watch the philosophy training of the Leadership Education Mentoring Institute (LEMI) regularly. ● Attend the parent meetings at the beginning, midyear and end of each year. ● Frequent communication is essential for Polar Star to run smoothly. Each family is expected to access their email often. It is your responsibility to access information and respond to requests in a timely manner. ● Members are to look for unmet needs and fulfill them. Each person’s talents are unique and each family has something to give. When we take ownership it adds to the sense of community and makes a richer environment for all. ● As statesmen, we will honor the Polar Star Dress Standard. ● Family members and students are expected to be cooperative and respectful to mentors and peers. Clean and dignified language and actions are required. We will support the discipline policy as outlined. ● If a youth is unable to conform to these standards, it is the parent’s ultimate responsibility to take necessary action. Repeated problems may be taken to the Executive Board for resolution. ● The Association does not intend to force students to leave the association but if a student’s behavior becomes unacceptable the Teacher of the class and/or Polar Star Leader has the power to ask a student to leave temporarily or permanently. This association is not for every student. There are high expectations. Some students are not ready to meet those expectations. Parents will be sensitive to the needs of their student(s) and considerate of the other students in the group. Section 3 – Fees and Expenses: Fees will be assessed by the Executive Board and include the annual family registration fee (specifically set aside to pay LEMI training registration fees and mentor packets), tuition (which includes costs for rent and insurance), and class fees. Families are responsible for acquiring any necessary books, student binders, and other class materials. Other fees and expenses might include field trips, certification fees, award fees, production expenses, etc. ● This association is not for profit. however, fundraising money remains in the account at the end of the year to fund field trips and LEMI training for the future. ● Monies will be allocated to remain in the account. ● Students who have a parent teaching a class do not have to pay for that class. If a student is not enrolled in the class their parent is teaching the family will be offered a waiver from the fees of another comparable class. ● Collected fees are not refundable unless deemed necessary by the treasurer and president. ● Fees are due before or on the first day of each semester. Each family is responsible to pay their fees to the treasurer. Non-payment will result in disciplinary action. Article III – POLAR STAR BOARD The members of Polar Star will be served and represented by an Executive Board and an Advisory Board. The Executive Board will be elected by the members each spring and consists of the President, Vice President, and Parent Representative. EXECUTIVE BOARD – Qualifications for the following positions: ● Be a member of Polar Star for one year, have a participating youth, and attend weekly class days at least 80% of the time. ● Have an understanding of and be committed to a Thomas Jefferson Education. ● Be working diligently on their own liberal arts education. ● Be committed to upholding this Constitution and our Christ-centered foundation. Section 1 – President Additional Qualification: be a LEMI-trained mentor A. Responsibilities: ● Provide vision for Polar Star ● Work with Vice President to administrate the needs of the weekly classes ● Appoint officers to the Advisory Board with the approval of the Executive Board ● Train and work closely with each officer while respecting her stewardship ● Preside over Board Meetings and Parent Meetings ● Network with parents and consult with the Principal Mentor regarding choosing mentors. Final decisions regarding choosing mentors are made by the Executive Board. ● Work with the Principal Mentor to handle concerns or disputes with mentors ● Make final decisions regarding disciplinary actions and deliver decisions to the parent and/or mentor ● Work with Executive Board to create, maintain, and enforce Policies and Procedures and fees ● Maintain a commonwealth checkbook with the Treasurer ● Work with the Facilities Coordinator to secure a building each year ● Set up additional short term committees as needed such as Student Council Advisor, Statesmanship Club advisor, publicity, public relations, special events, etc. B. Executive power: the President has the ability to act for the Board in exceptional circumstances such as timeliness, absence of other board members, or privacy issues. President has veto power to be used only for critical issues that affect the vision of Polar Star. A veto can be overturned by 2/3 of the membership. C. The term for this position is one year, with a two-year consecutive term limit. Section 2 – Vice President A. Responsibilities: ● Assist the President with such things as: calling and conducting quarterly board meetings, preparing agendas, and creating class schedules and event calendar. ● Administrate needs of weekly class meetings ● Oversee the registration process, by collecting information from Mentors and the Principal Mentor for fees on classes and consulting with the Treasurer ● Maintain Polar Star library B. The term is one year with a two-year consecutive term limit. Section 3 – Parent Representative A. Responsibilities: ● Act as liaison between parents and President ● Maintain open communication with parents and bring their concerns or suggestions to the Executive Board ● Consult with President regarding discipline problems ● Organize Parent Scholar Nights and Parent Meetings ● Be a contact person for families interested in joining Polar Star. B. Conduct short interviews with each potential new family to determine if the family has completed the requirements for membership and if their educational philosophy aligns with the group. C. The term is one year with a two-year consecutive term limit. ADVISORY BOARD: The following officers serve the Executive Board by providing input based on their area of stewardship and attend board meetings as requested by the Executive Board. Their individual or family input should go through the Parent Representative just as the rest of the general membership. All Advisory Board members must have a child in Polar Star and attend weekly class days whenever possible. Section 4 – Principal Mentor “A school rises to the level of its Principal Mentor,” Oliver DeMille This position is elected by the Polar Star mentors. A. Qualifications: ● Have a vision of what Polar Star has offered to families in the past and is committed to seeing it continue and expand. ● Have served a 1-year term as President, Vice-president, or Parent Representative. ● Have an understanding of and be committed to a Thomas Jefferson Education ● Be a LEMI trained mentor ● Be working diligently on their own liberal arts education ● Currently mentoring a class B. Responsibilities: ● Support and inspire mentors throughout the year ● Hold meetings for the current group of mentors ● Make recommendations to the President for mentors of scholar projects and classes ● Bring concerns of the mentors to the Executive Board ● Receive parents’ concerns about mentors and assist the President in resolving conflicts C. Term is one year with an option for re-election. Section 5 – Treasurer The Treasurer will be appointed by the President with the approval of the executive board. A. Responsibilities: ● Collect all fees from families ● Maintain bank account with President ● Make monthly payments and reimbursements in a timely manner ● Provide Executive Board with a financial statement each month ● Provide financial statements showing expenses year-to-date and projected expenditures at each parent meeting ● Works with the Vice President in the registration process, provides forms for registration each semester B. The term is 1 year with an option for reappointment. Section 6 – Facilities Coordinator The Facilities Coordinator will be appointed by the President with the approval of the executive board. A. Additional Qualifications: ● Be diplomatic in dealing with others and in representing Polar Star B. Responsibilities: ● Maintain a good relationship with building owners and reserve rooms for special events ● Research and make recommendations for new facilities when needed ● Coordinate cleaning of building and make sure the building is well-maintained C. The term is 1 year with an option for reappointment. Section 7 – Secretary/Historian The Secretary/Historian will be appointed by the President with the approval of the executive board. A. Additional Qualifications: ● Be organized and careful in maintaining records B. Responsibilities: ● Maintain a current roster of Polar Star families, current class lists, and file of records. ● Record minutes of meetings and publish them on the blog ● Maintains the official Polar Star Blog or website. Provide and distribute necessary documents and forms ● Keep an ongoing history of events and meetings C. The term is 1 year with an option for reappointment. Section 8 – Youth Colloquia Mentor The Youth Colloquia Mentor is appointed by the President with the approval of the executive board. A. Responsibilities: · Provide list of books for youth colloquia group to choose from · Work with the youth colloquia group · Be liaison between youth colloquia group and Polar Star group B. She will be appointed by the President with the approval of the executive board. Section 9 – Student Representative [Current President] The Student Representative is a student, elected by the students as their President. A. Qualifications: ● One year as member of Polar Star and currently enrolled in a scholar project ● Have an understanding of and be committed to a Thomas Jefferson Education ● Have an understanding of the needs of the youth B. Responsibilities: ● Represent the needs of the students to the board and attend meetings as invited ● Facilitate elections of student government as follows: Offices – Officers will be elected in the spring semester. Youth will elect a President, 2 Vice-Chairs over Colloquiums, 2 Vice Chairs over Activities, 2 Secretaries and 2 Historians to serve for the year Duties – All officers will set the example for other youth in their kind behavior towards other youth and in taking charge of their own education. ● President will run student elections and weekly devotional ● Colloquium Vice-Chairs will announce and promote colloquia, participate in the selection of books, and attend all colloquia ● Activities Vice-Chairs will help in planning formal and informal dances, parties and other events ● Secretaries will keep track of birthdays and recognize individuals on their birthday week ● Historians will take pictures and post them on the blog for others to view. Section 10 – Patriarch Judicial Committee for Special Circumstances This is a standing committee of three fathers, elected each spring at the Parent Meeting, and called upon as needed by Executive Board or individual members. A. Qualifications: ● When possible be a husband of a past Polar Star President or Vice-President. ● Cannot be on or have their wife on current Executive Board B. Responsibilities: ● Judge what “a reasonable man would do” if there is a dispute or an issue not addressed specifically in the constitution ● A majority vote is binding on all parties concerned Section 11 – Unfulfilled duties In the event that an elected officer cannot fulfill the responsibilities, there will be an election held according to the established election procedures (See Article VI). In the event that an appointed officer is not fulfilling her responsibilities, the President will find a replacement. Article IV – MENTORS Mentors of Polar Star classes/scholar projects form a standing committee with the Principal Mentor as head. Polar Star will not offer full-time classes as this may hinder students from acquiring a liberal arts education. Most scholar projects and classes will meet only once weekly, allowing hours of personal study. As we encourage and enable youth and parents to become self-directed scholars, we will protect and value personal study time. Mentor Qualifications: ● Demonstrate core values and abilities, such as sound judgment, emotional stability, and good moral character ● Have inspirational teaching skills to sustain the student’s love of learning ● Mastery of most of the scholar skills and abilities Mentor Responsibilities: ● Uphold the vision and expectations of Polar Star ● Inspire and provide an example for the students in behavior, dress and personal scholarship ● Provide the board with an outline or brief description of the class/scholar project ● Decide age limits, prerequisites and number of students allowed in the class/scholar project with approval by the Executive Board ● Be organized, prepared and begin and end class on time ● Work with the students to maintain proper conduct and behavior in the classroom ● Attend meetings of the Mentor Committee as announced by the Principal Mentor Article V – EDUCATIONAL PLAN Polar Star provides educational opportunities for youth that are not easily provided at home and will foster leadership ability. Youth need to have mentors to encourage them to explore scholarly pursuits and prepare them for leadership roles in their community. Participating in scholar projects gives youth a sense of vision and mission, and helps them to develop the skills and abilities needed to become scholars. Section 1 – Scholar Classes These classes and other LEMI trained projects that will benefit the families and youth of Polar Star will be offered each year as long as there is a trained mentor to head the class and enough students. Mentors must be trained by Leadership Education Mentoring Institute (LEMI) or be mentored by another parent trained by LEMI. Key of Liberty — This Practice Scholar project is a two-semester study of the US Founding and Constitution. Sword of Freedom/Hero Project — This Practice Scholar project is one-semester study of the Civil War era and a one-semester study of World War II. Sword of Freedom continues the study of the foundation and protection of our freedoms and the Hero Project focuses on the heroes of the past and how we can become like them. It is best taken after Key of Liberty. Shakespeare Conquest — This two-semester Practice Scholar project includes the study of Shakespeare and acting and the spring production of a Shakespearean play. Pyramid Project — This two-semester Project/Apprentice Scholar project includes the study of scientists and the Inteligro method; designed for students 14 and older. Quest 1, 2 & 3 — This Apprentice Scholar project is a three – four semester study of leadership and Thomas Jefferson Education; designed for students 14 and older. Pyramid Project — This two-semester Project/Apprentice Scholar project includes the study of scientists and the Inteligro method; designed for students 14 and older. Edison Project — This Self-Directed Scholar project helps the students develop their own specific area of interest,create a detailed plan with the mentor, and then pursue it. They learn the skill of how to turn the seemingly unattainable into reachable steps. Section 2 – Supplemental Classes Polar Star encourages other classes as needs and interests arise. These classes must follow our objective and mission and be approved by the Executive Board. Classes that build on LEMI scholar projects, such as Classical Acting, should be presented by trained LEMI mentors. If a parent sees a need for their child and would like to have it fulfilled but does not have an expertise in that field she may look for a teacher and make a recommendation to the Executive Board. Mentors may be parents, volunteers or paid teachers. These mentors are encouraged to respect the principles of A Thomas Jefferson Education. Section 3 – Building Supervision and Cleaning Any parent that is not a teacher will be expected to sign up for one or more times each semester to supervise at the building in which the classes are held. The parent will be expected to be present in the building for the entire day. They will also stay to the end of the day, clean, and lock up the building. They will ascertain that all youth have left the building and have rides home. Section 4 – Parents as Teachers Any parent who has a class that they would like to offer should contact the Polar Star Leadership before the spring parent meeting and come prepared to present ideas at the spring parent meeting. Section 5 – Colloquium Club A Youth Colloquium Club will be administered as long as there is a parent willing to mentor the club and attend each colloquium. Section 6 – Dances The purpose of Polar Star family dances is to provide a Family Event that brings families together and supports the Polar Star Community. Those invited to attend these dances are Polar Star families, families who have been invited by Polar Star families, and invited individual friends who come with a family. There are to be no youth under 18 with dates at these dances, and all dates must come as guests of a family. The Family Dance is for entire families, and the Formal Ball is for family members age 12 and over. The dress standard for the Formal Ball includes no sleeveless, backless, above the knee, low or revealing dresses and boys in dress shirts and ties with Sunday pants, suits or tuxedos. Section 7 – Dress Standard Statesmen dress and behave in ways that show high esteem for themselves and others. Their dress and appearance is modest, dignified, and does not call inappropriate attention to themselves. Dressing appropriately is important to learning and keeping the focus where it should be. Clothing for Regular Polar Star School Days “Business Casual” dress is appropriate for Polar Star regular school days. If you aren’t sure if something is appropriate to wear, please don’t wear it. Let’s honor one another by being respectful in our dress. A. Slacks, Pants, and Suit Pants: ● Slacks, pants, stretch twill or chino styles for girls or boys, and other makers of cotton, or synthetic material pants, wool pants, dressy capris, and nice looking dress synthetic pants are acceptable. ● They can have any style pockets, stitching, grommets & any cut style leg bottom as long as it’s not frayed. ● Inappropriate slacks or pants in a business casual setting include jeans made of denim, cargo pants, sweatpants, exercise pants, bib overalls, leggings, jeggings, and any spandex or other form-fitting pants such as people wear for biking. ● Pants and slacks should be free of holes and rips. ● Underwear or boxers should not be visible. B. Skirts, Dresses, and Skirted Suits: ● Dresses and skirts are acceptable. Dress and skirt length can be any length but no shorter than the top of the knee when sitting and standing. ● Inappropriate dresses and skirts are those that are short and tight and ride halfway up the thigh. ● Spaghetti-strap dresses are also inappropriate unless layered. ● The slit of a dress or skirt cannot be open above the knee. C. Shirts, Tops, Blouses, and Jackets: ● Collared shirts for boys of any style. ● Blouses are acceptable for girls. ● Most suit jackets, sports jackets, hoodless sweaters and jackets are also acceptable attire. ● Inappropriate attire includes tank tops; tops that show any part of the midriff or cleavage (including when leaning over); shirts with potentially offensive words, terms, pictures, cartoons, or slogans; tops with bare shoulders; sweatshirts, hoodies, and t-shirts unless a plain t-shirt is worn as an under layer. ● Shirts and blouses should not be see-through unless they have a layer underneath. ● Bras & straps should not be visible. D. Shoes and Footwear: ● Shoes should be worn. ● Conservative athletic or walking shoes, loafers, sneakers, boots, flats, wedges, dress heels, and leather deck-type shoes are acceptable. ● Wearing no stockings is acceptable. ● Summer style rubber flip-flops, as well as slippers, are not acceptable. F. Hats, Jewelry, & Hair: ● Hats are not appropriate. However, hats that are required for special classes are allowed. ● No more than 1 pair of earrings for girls. No earrings for boys. ● Hair must be a natural color. G. Clothing for special occasions: ● On special occasions or during presentations your mentor may ask you to come in semi-formal attire which means dresses or suits for girls & suits or slacks for boys with a tie. ● On the last day of each semester, you are able to come in jeans & a Polar Star t-shirt (this includes those from Polar Star plays). Section 8 – Discipline Policy The Grandma Standard A. Behavior you would display in front of or towards your Grandma. (If your student does not know what a grandma standard is explain it to them. – Refer to the pamphlet For the Strength of Youth.) B. Parents are responsible for the training of their own student. If a student is disruptive, disrespectful, irresponsible, inappropriate, using hurtful, crude or vulgar language or overall does not want to comply, this is an issue that the parents must address with their student. C. Positive Interaction is one of the goals of Polar Star. Negative communication in any of the following forms will not promote unity or foster Christ-like relationships · Student to student · Student to parent · Parent to parent. (Please take Isa. 29:20-21, 1 Pet. 1:15, D & C 88:124, D & C 136:24, Matt 5:25-26 and 3 Nephi 12:23-25 as your guide in resolving conflicts. If there are any concerns throughout the year via these guides please bring them to the leadership. Please keep each other’s names safe in your home.) D. Protocol for disciplinary action · The teacher, administrator or building supervisor should 1. Take immediate action. 2. If necessary, notify the parent and ask the parent to attend class. 3. If behavior problems still persist the student will be asked by the President to withdraw permanently. Article VI – MEETINGS General Membership: A minimum of three Parent Meetings will be held each year. At least one parent from each family should be in attendance. If a parent is unable to attend, they are responsible for obtaining any necessary information. ● Parents meetings will be a reasonable length in time 1- 1 1/2 hrs. They will be orderly but will not follow Roberts Rules. ● Parents will be contacted by e-mail as to the day, time and place of the meetings. The end of year meeting information will also be posted on the website / blog. ● Attendance of at least one parent at a meeting on parent mentoring is strongly suggested. ● Additional meetings can be called if deemed necessary. Beginning of the Year Parent Meeting: This meeting will be held before the beginning of the school year, typically in August. This will be a type of orientation meeting to provide families with information about current policies and activities. Mentors will provide parents with information about classes/scholar projects. Advisory Board officers will be appointed prior to this meeting and will be introduced. Parents will complete registration packets and pay fees. Midyear Parent Meeting: This meeting will be held in January to give parents information for the winter/spring semester classes. Registration forms will be filled out and fees paid. Any pressing information will be presented by the executive board. End of the Year Parent Meeting: This meeting will be held near the end of the school year, typically in May. A preliminary plan will be presented for classes beginning in the Fall. Scholar projects, mentors and scheduling will be discussed. A date for the first day of Fall classes will be announced. Elections will be held for officers. Financial statements will be presented and preliminary fees for the Fall will be announced. Executive Board Meetings: Closed to the general membership and advisory board, unless invited. Held as needed. Board Meetings: Held quarterly or as needed; open to the general membership. Agenda will be posted one week in advance and minutes posted one week after meeting. Parent participation is encouraged within the guidelines listed in the current policies and procedures. After conferring with appropriate Advisory Board members, the President and/or Executive Board will make final decisions. Decisions can be overturned by a 2/3 majority vote of the general membership. Referendum Process: The Parent Representative will receive requests for overturning a decision (respecting requests for anonymity), present the request to the membership, allow 2 weeks for discussion, and then administer a secret ballot vote. Requests from a member to overturn a board decision should not be submitted lightly, but only after careful pondering and if needed to keep the board in line with our vision (see Article I). The Vote: Listed below are the requirements necessary for a family to vote: 1. Families must be a Polar Star member for one school year with a child registering in Polar Star for the upcoming school year. 2. Families must be current in financial obligations. 3. Each family will have one vote. Election Process: ● Secret nominations will be submitted three weeks prior to the year-end parent meeting typically held in May. ● The Board will verify acceptance of nomination, one candidate cannot run for more than one position. ● A ballot will be published one week prior to meeting. ● Under extenuating circumstances a member may cast an absentee ballot. ● Voting will be done in the following order: President, Vice President, and Parent Representative. Nominations from the floor will be accepted and verified before each vote is taken. Ballots will be cast at the Parent meeting and counted by two individuals who are not candidates. ● Board positions are elected by a simple majority. If needed, the candidates with the two highest vote counts will participate in a runoff vote until the 50% +1 is achieved. Article VII – COMMITTEES It is expected that everyone give the best they can to Polar Star as volunteers serving on various committees. No one can know what another family’s “widow’s mite” is; expectant mothers are excused as much as possible from volunteering. At the Parent Meeting, some or all of the following standing committees will be created. A. Statesmanship Club Advisor (American Youth Leadership Institute) ● Coordinate with AYLI for Focus on the Founders, Constitution Bowl, Parliamentary Procedure B. Dances ● Family Dance ● Winter Formal C. Kickoff Committee D. Mock Trial E. Student Government Advisor Article VIII – AMENDMENTS The Polar Star Constitution may be amended in one of two ways: 1. The Executive Board members may write a proposal for an amendment, or 2. Members may submit a written proposal for an amendment to the Executive Board. In both of the above stated cases, a second party of one or more people who are very familiar with the Polar Star Constitution should provide a thorough review to check for clarity and consistency, so that the proposed changes will enhance the validity and effectiveness of this document. The proposed amendment should be sent to the second party at least four weeks prior to the upcoming parent meeting. Votes will take place at any one of the three Parent Meetings (as defined in Article VI) if submitted, reviewed, and sent to members at least two weeks prior to the meeting. To be eligible to vote for proposed amendments, you must have been a Polar Star member for one school year, with a scholar registering in Polar Star for the coming year, and must be current in financial obligations with Polar Star. One vote per family is counted. Absentee votes may be sent to the Executive Board by midnight of the day before the parent meeting in order for the vote to be counted. A member who does not submit a vote at the parent meeting, who is not in attendance at the parent meeting where the vote takes place, or who hasn’t submitted an absentee ballot in advance of the meeting forfeits their opportunity to participate in that vote. Article IX – RATIFICATION Two-thirds of the general membership of the Polar Star Educational Association is sufficient to ratify this Constitution, effective immediately. An amendment may be ratified with a two-thirds affirmative vote and becomes effective immediately. November 2011 Signed by the Families of Polar Star Educational Association May 2019 Amendments passed by two-thirds vote of the general membership; noted in green